Census: The Indian Census is one of the largest administrative
exercises undertaken in the world. Census Act 1948 provides a legal basis for
it. The Census of India is conducted once in a decade, using an extended de
facto canvasser method. Under this approach, data is collected from every
individual by visiting the household and canvassing the same questionnaire all
over the country, over a period of three weeks. The count is then updated to
the reference date and time, by conducting a revision round. In the revision
round any changes that occur on account of births, deaths, and migration
between the time of enumerator’s visit and reference date time are noted and
adopted. In this method census Until census 1931, a was conducted throughout the country in a single night. This method required the deployment of very large manpower and was given up in census 1941. The last census in India was carried out in March 2011. It is the 15th census since 1872.
The gigantic task of the census was completed in two phases. In the first phase, known as House Listing Operations, all buildings and structures, residential, partly residential or non- residential were identified and listed and the uses to which they on houses, household amenities, and assets were also collected. In the second phase, known as Population Enumeration, more detailed information on each individual residing in the country, Indian national or otherwise, during the enumeration period was collected. In Census 2011, the canvassing of the questionnaire was done from the 9th of February 2011 to the 28th of February 2011 A Revision Round was then conducted from 1st to 5th of March 2011 and the count updated to the Reference Moment of 00:00 hours on the 1st of March 2011.
Census not only provides demographic data but a variety of other information. This includes total population, rate, rural-urban, literacy status, religion, marital status, living conditions, work participation, and disability status. This information is available at national, state and district levels. Village wise, town-wise information on the total population is available online. Detailed information can be accessed free of cost at Census Data Online at http://www.censusindia.gov.in. Some information Is available on a payment basis at an online shop at the above site. Census 2011 also includes type of house, main source of drinking water and lighting, latrine and bathing facility within premises possession of a computer, internet, landline, and mobile telephone. Information was also gathered on a number of live births during the last one 2011 are available on the website.
The Sample Registration System (SRS)
It provides annual information on some of the indicators at the national and state level, e.g. Crude Birth Rate, Crude Death Rate, Infant Mortality Rate, and Total Fertility Rate. The information segregated by sex, rural and urban areas is also made available. The system also periodically provides information on indicators such as Maternal Mortality Rate, Neonatal Mortality Rate large-scale demographic survey which was initiated on a pilot basis by the Office of The Registrar General, India in a few selected states in 196465. It became fully operational during 1969-70 with about 3700 sample units. The field investigation consists of a continuous enumeration of births and deaths in selected sample units by resident part-time enumerators, generally Anganwadi workers&teachers, and an independent survey every six months by SRS supervisors. The data obtained by these two independent functionaries are matched.
National Family Health Survey
It was carried out for the first time in 1992-93, subsequently in 1998-99 and 2005-06. It is proposed to be carried out every five years and provides detailed information on most indicators at the national and state level only. The 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the third in the NFHS series of surveys, provides information on states. The survey is based on a and state level. NFHS-3 provides trend data on key indicators and includes information on several new slum populations, male involvement in the use of health and family welfare services, adolescent and reproductive health, family life education, safe injections and knowledge about tuberculosis. For the first time, NFHS-3 also provides information on men and unmarried women. In addition, HIV prevalence is measured at the national level and for selected states. In NFHS-3 a total of 109.041 households were covered and 1,24,385 women (15-49 years) and 74,369 men (15- population, health, and nutrition in India and each of its 29 samples of households which is representative at the national topics such as perinatal mortality, HIV/AIDS-related behaviour and the health of 54 years) were contacted for interview. The NFHS-3 fieldwork was conducted by 18 Research Organisations between December 2005 and August 2006.
District Level Household and Facility Survey
It is designed to provide information on selected indicators at
the district level, state level and national level. The DLHS (2007-08) is the
third round and preceding two rounds were carried out during 1998-99 and
2002-04. These surveys have been carried out by International Institute for
Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai as the national nodal agency on behalf of
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt of
In DLHS-3, the survey covered 611 districts in India. The total number of households representing provide information on family planning, maternal and child health, reproductive health of ever a district varied from 1000 to 1500 households. The DLHS-3 was designed to married women and adolescent girls, utilization of maternal and child healthcare services at the district level for India. In addition, DLHS-3 also provides information related to new-bom care, post-natal care within 48 hours, the role of ASHA in enhancing the reproductive and child health care and coverage of Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY). An important component of DLHS-3 is the integration of Facility Survey of health institutions i.e., sub-centres, Primary Health Centres accessible to the sampled villages. At the district level, all Community Health Centres and District Hospitals were surveyed. The focus of DLHS-3 was to provide health care and utilisation indicators at the district level for the enhancement of the activities under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) The DLHS-3 covered 6,84,267 households in 21,623 villages. Facility survey covered 17,752 sub-centres, 8,445 PHCS, 4,094 CHCS and 567 district hospitals.