PROMOTIONAL AND MOTIVATIONAL MEASURES FOR ADOPTION OF THE SMALL FAMILY NORM

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  1. Panchayats and Zila Parishads will be rewarded and honored for exemplary performance in universalizing the small family norm, achieving reductions in infant mortality and birth rates, and promoting literacy with completion of primary schooling. 
    2. The Balika Samridhi Yojana run by the Department of Women and Child Development to promote survival and care of the girl child will continue. Under the scheme a cash gift of Rs. 500 is awarded at the birth of the girl child of birth order 1 or 2 and subsequently, the scholarship is given at various stages of schooling up to class X. The benefit is available to BPL families.
    3. The Maternity Benefit Scheme run by the Department of Rural Development will continue A cash incentive of Rs. 500 is awarded to mothers who have their first child after 19 years of age, for the birth of the first or second child only. Disbursement of the cash award will in the future be linked to compliance with antenatal check-up, institutional delivery by the trained birth attendant, registration of birth and BCG immunization. 
    4. A Family Welfare linked Health Insurance Plan will be established. Couples below the poverty line, who undergo sterilization with not more than two living children, would become eligible (along with children) for health (for hospitalization) insurance not exceeding Rs. 5000, and a personal accident insurance cover for the spouse undergoing sterilization.
    5. Couples below the poverty line, who marry after the legal age of marriage, register the marriage, have their first child after the mother reaches the age of 21, accept the small family norm and adopt a terminal method after the birth of the second child, will be rewarded. 
    6. A revolving fund will be set up for income generation activities by village level self-help groups, who provide community-level health care services.

Review

Population stabilization is the key to sustainable development in India. It has been accorded the highest political commitment reflected in the setting up of a National Commission on which is chaired by the Prime Minister. Empowered Action Group consisting of eight states that are lagging behind in population containment provides a platform to review at highest level progress in family welfare activities and outcome. 
Literacy, which is a major determinant of birth rate, is getting its due priority. Net Primary School Enrollment has increased to 98.3% in 2009-10 for both sexes.3 Women’s empowerment, another major determinant has been addressed by the reservation of seats for women in panchayats and local bodies as well as allocation in Poverty Alleviation Programmes. Percentage of girls less than 18 years of age getting married has gone down, but still one fifth of them are Population, getting married before the legal age for marriage.4 To improve sex ratio and education of girl child a number of states have launched incentive schemes like Ladli Scheme in Delhi, Ladli Laxmi Yojana in Madhya Pradesh and provision of free bicycles to school going girls in Bihar. Sabla scheme has been launched by the central government on a pilot basis in 200 districts across the country in November 2010 to improve the health and nutrition status of adolescent girls and empower them, besides ongoing Kishori Shakti Yojana in the other districts. districts, where it has replaced NPAG and KSY.

Formation of Village Health and Sanitation Committees and observance of Health and Nutrition Day at anganwadis, provide opportunities for convergence of delivery of health and related development programs, as envisaged in the National Population Policy.

    Under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) access to health services including family planning services is being increased.

Janani Suraksha Yojana under NRHM provides cash incentives in case of institutional deliveries and in the High Performing States, these are restricted to women above 19 years of age and up to two children to encourage people to follow NPP. In October 2010 Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY) was launched in 52 districts of the country. It promotes early registration of pregnancy, antenatal care, institutional delivery, exclusive breastfeeding up to six months timely introduction of complementary feeds and immunization through cash incentives in three stages to pregnant & lactating women of 19 years of age and above, for the first two live births.

Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Programme provides for IEC and counseling through ASHA and local couples at the village level. These measures along with the widening of choice of contraceptives through the inclusion of injectables, centchroman, emergency contraception, and natural methods are helping reduce the unmet need for contraception, which has declined from 15.8% in NFHS-2 to 13.2% in NFHS-3.

Immunization coverage has been increasing slowly, 12-23 months of age being fully immunized.
Although there has been a recent increase in the institutional deliveries (47%, DLHS-3)4, it is nowhere near the population policy goal of 80% institutional deliveries. 
Infant mortality Rate (IMR) has declined to 42 in 2012.6 Rapid progress towards the goal of bringing IMR to less than 30 requires measures for the reduction of Neonatal Mortality Rate, which constitutes about 2/3rd of IMR and gearing up of efforts at providing the package of services for children under RCH program to all.

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) which was stagnating at 400-500 per lakh live births in the last two decades of the 20th century has of late started declining and reached 212, which is still far off from the goal of less than 100 maternal deaths lakh live births. 
Decadal Growth Rate of the population has declined from 21.34 % ( 1991 -2001) to 17.64% (2001-11). Such a steep fall of 3.7 percentage points has occurred for the first time and is an encouraging sign. Census 2011 has also shown a decline in population growth rates in the EAG states. Total Fertility Rate has declined to 2.5 in 2010. However, the country is still far from the goal of replacement levels of fertility, which was to be achieved by 2010. Also, a population of 1210.2 million (census 2011) is much higher than the projected population of 1107 million in 2010 if NPP were to be fully implemented.

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