TSC was launched in 1999 as a demand driven, community-led programme with major IEC inputs to make sanitation a felt need of the people. The TSC has been able to accelerate sanitation Coverage from 22 per cent as per the 2001 Census to 31 per cent in 2011, with over 28,000 PRIS becoming ‘Open Defecation Free’ (ODF). TSC received a major boost during the later half of the decade, with the introduction of the Nirmal Gram Puraskar (NGP) in 2005, an innovative incentive scheme for Gram Panchayats, blocks and districts, that have attained 100 per cent sanitation coverage.
However, provision of facility and its usage differ. A recent impact study by the World Bank’s Water and Sanitation Programme in five states reveals that only 67 per cent of the toilets even in NGP villages were being used, while this percentage fell to just 46 per cent in non-NGP villages. The key factors explaining the gap between access to and usage of sanitation facilities were poor quality of construction and unfinished toilets. A major reason for this was the very low incentive provided under the TSC. Non-availbility of water has been another reason for non usage.
Total Sanitation Campaign in the 12th Plan
- The goal of the 12th Plan will be that 50 per cent of the Gram Panchayats attain Nimal Gram status by the year 2018.
- Through a convergence with MGNREGA, the unit cost of individual household latrines will rise to Rs10,000.
- Toilet designs will be fine-tuned in accordance with local social and ecological considerations
- In order to focus more centrally on sustainability of outcomes, the programme shall be taken up in a phased manner wherein GPs shall be identified, based on defined criteria of conjoint approach to sanitation and water supply, for achievement of NGP status.
- A new strategy will be devised to facilitate convergence between drinking water and sanitation projects.
- Child-friendly toilets will be developed in anganwadis and schools. Running water availability must also be ensured in all government school toilets, anganwadi toilets and Community Sanitary Complexes under NRDWP.
- Sanitation will be made a part of the school curriculum so that safe sanitation practices are ingrained in the minds of children who would be the torch bearers of sanitation in their households and the community.
- In order to ensure smooth operations and maintenance of toilets, campaign will be launched in convergence with the National Rural Livelihoods Mission in skills such as masonry work, brickmaking, toilet pan making and plumbing.
- Comprehensive region-specific communication and information strategy will be deployed for demand generation and sustainability. Office bearers and members of GPs, VWSCS, SHGS, women and youth groups, school committees etc. will be involved in dissemination of information and effective communication.
- TSC renamed as Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) will be implemented at the GP level through VWSCS who could receive technical support from NGOS/CBOS identified by the District authorities.
Solid and liquid waste management will be taken up in Nirmal Grams on a for which an assistance of Rs 5 lakh will be additionally available per 1,000 people from the redesigned MGNREGA.
Urban Water and Waste Management
The quantum of water to be supplied, its management and equitable supply to all are important. In most cities, water supply is sourced from long distances and the length of the pipeline determines the costs, including costs of pumping. In the current water supply system, there are enormous losses in the distribution system because of leakages and bad management. Another challlenge is unequal distribution of water within cities. As per the NSS 65th round, only 47 per cent urban households have individual water connections. There are no accurate estimates of individual ground water users, leading to lack of planning for recharge.
Census 2011 shows that only 32.7 per cent urban Indians are connected to a piped system. Large volumes of untreated waste water parts of the modern cities remain unconnected to the sewage system as illegal equally sewer pollutes water bodies and ground water. Large they live in unauthorised or slums, where the state services do not reach.
Reform Agenda for Five Year Plan:
A paradigm shift is required in the 12th Plan if we are to move towards sustainable solutions to urban water and waste management. First, we will have to reduce the length of the pipeline to bring water to homes, thus reducing costs, including electricity and pumping costs and ‘leakage’. This means giving higher priority to reviving local water bodies and recharging groundwater, SO that we can source water from as close as possible. Secondly we must use less, not more water in our homes costs and transportation of sewage, use decentralised networks and use a to treat sewage as so that we have less to treat and less to dispose off. Thirdly, we must also cut the variety of technologies to learn that we will have to reuse locally as possible. Finally, we must begin every drop of our sewage. It is even technically possible to turn it into drinking water but at the very least we should plan to recycle and reuse it in our treatment) to rejuvenate natural water bodies. This would require change of standards so that groundwater pollution boards incentivise the reuse of wastewater for recharge. This water-waste agenda needs to be incorporated deliberately into city plans.
Planning for urban water and sanitation must be made into essential pre-conditions for any gardens, in our industries or use it (after support to urban projects under JNNURM. This should include.
- Plan to supply water at affordable costs to all.
- Invest in protection and management of local water systems.
- Reduce water demand and intra-city. inequity in water supply and sanitation.
- Invest on sewage first and water supply next.
- Reduce costs on sewage systems so that investment can reach all.
- Reinvent sewage management and treatment systems for sustainability.